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1. UNDERLYING THEME: Interrelationship between poverty and population explosion needs to be understood
2. KEYWORD: Critically examine – Understanding how both promote each other and come to a balanced conclusion
3. INTRODUCTION: India is the second most populous country with 1.21 billion people [2011 census] of which nearly 22% is below the poverty line i.e. More than 200 -250 million people live under 1.9$ a day.
Discuss the Impact of Population on poverty and vice versa
A] Population on poverty:
Ø Pressure on limited resources – Access
Ø Competition for resources – increases cost of access i.e. Affordability
Ø In densely populated poor nations with pressure on land, rapid population growth increases landlessness and hence the incidence of poverty
Ø Unemployment rate increases pushing families to poverty
B] Poverty on Population
Ø There exists an inherent belief that , there is a higher chance of escaping poverty even if one of the off springs do well – i.e more hands to work , increased chance of survival of offspring
Ø This in turn develops a situation where affluent sections go for lesser children and poorer sections have more
Ø This further puts stress on the limited resources , education , health systems and capacity of the government
Ø Deepens poverty while also contributing to massive increase in population.
Thus we can see that they are highly interrelated and impact each other and national growth and economy. But we also need to understand that there are many other reasons for population growth – Socio-religious causes, Base effect and so on
Government attention and active involvement is compulsory to break this vicious cycle of interdependency. It can be done by promoting Awareness, Social security, better opportunities to development and empowerment. Note various schemes aimed at these issues to conclude.